hk metal

materials processing, the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products.

Processing of metals in the solid state can be divided into two major stages: first, the raw material in the form of large ingots or billets is hot-worked, usually by rolling, forging, or extrusion, into smaller shapes and sizes; second, these shapes are processed into final parts and products by one or more smaller

Equipment means nothing without the experience,
expertise and passion of our team.

This passion drove to custom engineer and build our hydraulic presses. Coupled with the largest ring and planishing mills in the industry, we can produce high-quality open die, seamless rolled ring and bar forgings. On an annual basis, we invest a significant amount of capital back into our business to improve and expand operations, all based on our customers’ needs.


For the Human, For the Eartch

affect the mechanical properties of a metal.

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Grain Size Effect

It has long been known that the properties of some metals could be changed by heat treating. Grains in metals tend to grow larger as the metal is heated. A grain can grow larger by atoms migrating from another grain that may eventually disappear. Dislocations cannot cross grain boundaries easily, so the size of grains determines how easily the dislocations can move. As expected, metals with small grains are stronger but they are less ductile. Figure 5 shows an example of the grain structure of metals.

Quenching and Hardening

There are many ways in which metals can be heat treated. Annealing is a softening process in which metals are heated and then allowed to cool slowly. Most steels may be hardened by heating and quenching (cooling rapidly). This process was used quite early in the history of processing steel. In fact, it was believed that biological fluids made the best quenching liquids and urine was sometimes used. In some ancient civilizations, the red hot sword blades were sometimes plunged into the bodies of hapless prisoners! Today metals are quenched in water or oil. Actually, quenching in salt water solutions is faster, so the ancients were not entirely wrong.

Cold Working

Because plastic deformation results from the movement of dislocations, metals can be strengthened by preventing this motion. When a metal is bent or shaped, dislocations are generated and move. As the number of dislocations in the crystal increases, they will get tangled or pinned and will not be able to move. This will strengthen the metal, making it harder to deform. This process is known as cold working. At higher temperatures the dislocations can rearrange, so little strengthening occurs.